Monday, September 3, 2018

After the 1933 Spang-Chalfant strike violence, the immediate aftermath

This blog post is a continuation of the story of the October 5, 1933, Spang-Chalfant anti-strike violence in Ambridge PA. If you haven't yet read about it, I recommend you read my blog post telling the story, illustrated by a number of photos and a newsreel: "Ambridge 1933 anti-union strike violence at Spang-Chalfant." If you have already read it, consider re-reading it. It's a shocking and sad story appropriate for Labor Day.

Strikebreakers on patrol after ending the strike at Spang-Chalfant
AP photo
October 6, 1933

Here's the Associated Press description on the back of the above photo:
Guard Steel Property: Deputies Sheriff are shown patrolling the railroad lines beside an Ambridge, PA., steel plant, around which there has been sporadic warfare between pickets and officers for several days. Tear gas and rifle fire have been resorted to by officers to halt the activity of pickets. 
Since I first started researching the story of that strike, I have been struck by how the workers who were trying to unionize were not only beaten, shot, and teargassed by deputized strikebreakers, but also I've frequently been taken aback by the number of local officials who led, condoned, or were complicit in the violence against the strikers, including the Beaver County Sheriff Charles J. O'Loughlin, County Detective Robert Branyan, Ambridge Burgess P. J. Caul, and county District Attorney, A. B. de Castrique, as well as local police.

But the mistreatment of the workers, or those suspected of being union sympathizers, didn't stop when the strike did.

A 1995 article in the Buffalo Law Review * describes some of post-strike incidents:
The next day, three carloads of police patrolled the streets breaking up groups of three or more at gun point, even on the steps of their homes. Many were routinely searched. Police raided the offices of the strikers to arrest several leaders of the strike, carrying off records and cash, without warrants. Leaders spent days in jail until released on habeas corpus. More than twenty men were fired at Spang-Chalfant. 
"Injured men were also interrogated about their work before treatment."

"Police violently interfered with people going to the funeral of the man killed [Adam Petrasuski], and two women, Edith Brisker and May Ecker, were arrested when they tried to speak to the crowd."

The Law Review article also tells the story of how a community member not involved in the strike was not only shot by the deputies, but also mistreated by the very people who should have cared for him:
Abuse was not limited to pickets, a bread delivery man showed the extent of municipal control.
 I was near Twenty-fourth Street. There were no pickets or strikers there. A bunch of deputies, not among those who came in from the outside but from those who were inside shot at me. They were stationed on the railroad tracks. I did not know what for. I had no stick or anything. I was just watching from a distance what was happening when the fellows from the railroad tracks shot at me hitting me in the back. . . . 
 When I first came to the hospital I had to hang around in the waiting room. I was very sick, so I found a bench and lay down. Pretty soon someone came to me, I don't know whether he was a doctor or who, I was too sick to look up. He asked me "where you work?" I was too sick to reply. 
 The same evening Dr. F.C. Forcey who is on the staff of the Sewickley Valley hospital and who is also the company physician of the Spang-Chalfant Company said to me "You are a red." I said "sure, can't you see all the blood from my wounds." Then he said "You ought to be shot." 
 Then Dr. Boruku, the second day when he went to take the bandage off the wounds, asked me whether I cry. I said no. Then he tore the bandage off my arms, tearing the hair with it. "You must be tough," he said. Then when he started taking the bandage off my head he said "We're going to have fun now." He tried to tear it off. It hurt terribly, tears were rolling down my eyes, but I said nothing. He could not tear the head bandage off, so he took the scissors and cut my hair.
After I collect more information, I hope to write more about what happened in Ambridge in the aftermath of the 1933 strike. Until then, on this Labor Day, think about how people literally fought and died for the employment rights and benefits many U. S. workers have today.

* Casebeer, Kenneth (Winter, 1995) "Aliquippa: The Company Town and Contested Power in the Construction of Law," 43 Buffalo L. Rev. 617

Saturday, August 18, 2018

Ambridge streetcar #1, 1906

Ambridge's streetcar #1
(possibly January 1) 1906
courtesy John Dunn collection

Why were all these men and children, dressed for cold weather--and way in the back of the left side of the crowd, a horse--gathered in the 400 block of Merchant St. around a streetcar? I assume it must have been an important event. And where were the women? In the streetcar? Not invited? Too busy to come?

While local historian Bill Bowan left some notes on the back of the photo about the area where it was taken, he didn't include an explanation of the reason the group posed with the streetcar, which if you look closely, has a number on the front--"1."

I believe that the photo may show Ambridge's first streetcar on the day it began service. But I have no confirmation of that identification.

The French Point Street Railway Co. made its first run on January 1, 1906, over still unpaved Merchant St.  Going south, the two-car line's route was French Point to 4th St., then west to Maplewood where it turned south again until 1st St., turned east and looped back to Merchant St. for the trip north. (Daily Citizen Trade Area Directory, 1956)

To provide the power to run the system when it began, the operators, rather cleverly I think, temporarily used the boilers and engines still in the former Harmonist laundry building, with the addition of electrical generators and machinery. A permanent power system was planned for the spring of 1906. (Ambridge-Economy Citizen, Dec. 28, 1905)

Future plans for the French Point Street Railway Co. also included:
  • connecting the south end of the French Point line to the Pittsburgh Railways Co. line in Leetsdale, eventually connecting Ambridge with Pittsburgh, and  
  • connecting the north end of Ambridge's line to the Beaver Valley Traction Co. lines in Baden via the newly completed Duss Ave.--once the new steel viaduct over Legionville Hollow was finished. This connection would allow riders to travel between Ambridge and Beaver.

In 1934, the Beaver Valley Traction Co., then operating the streetcars in Ambridge, replaced them with buses. (Daily Citizen, March 31, 1939) The old streetcar tracks on Merchant were covered with blacktop in 1958 (Beaver Valley Times, July 29, 1958), but reappear from time to time during resurfacing.

The area of 5th and Merchant Sts.

The tall building you can see behind the streetcar is the razed Ambridge Savings and Trust Co. building on the northeast corner of Merchant and 5th Sts.

Here's what Bill Bowan's handwritten note on the back of the photo said:
About-1906--Ambridge Pa. Looking North toward 5th St. on Merchant.
Empty Lot on corner became "Regent" Theatre and Goldstein's Clothing Store downstairs.--2nd Flr. Andy Labenz has 12 Bowling Alleys--Duckpins, and Pool Tables. Regent Theatre became "Penn" Theatre. Witmeyers Drugs--became Freymark Drugs. M. Libermans Mens Furnishing Shop became Heberlines Jeweler-Optician and Musical Store--Wm. J. Bowan -73.
Between the occupation by the Regent and Penn Theatres, another theater was in the building eventually built on the southeast corner of 5th and Merchant--the Senate.

Freymark Drugs was at 513 Merchant, so perhaps the building with the ad painted on the side?

Wednesday, August 8, 2018

Stangl Baking Co., 1920

Stangl Baking Co.
Wagner and Merchant Sts.
courtesy Lorianne Stangl Burgess

In 1920, Paul Stangl, Sr. opened Stangl Baking Co. at the corner of Wagner and Merchant Sts. After Paul Stangl, Sr. died in the late 1930s, his son Paul Stangl, Jr., who had been operating his own business at 572 Merchant, took over the company.

I've enlarged the lower right of the photo to better show the people in the photo:

The man standing next to the bakery truck is Paul Stangl, Sr. The little boy in the truck is his son, Alfred Stangl. The women in the doorway are unidentified, and if you look very closely, there's someone standing behind the women, probably Paul Stangl, Jr.

Here's what the interior of the bakery looked like in 1920:

Stangl Baking Co. interior
Wagner and Merchant Streets
courtesy Lorianne Stangl Burgess

Lorianne Stangl Burgess who owns the current Stangl's Bakery at 572 Merchant is the great-granddaughter of Paul Stangl, Sr.

You can read about the history of Stangl's Bakery here. If you haven't read that Ambridge Memories article yet, check out the collection of vintage Stangl's photos.

Monday, August 6, 2018

Ambridge memorabilia: Ambridge Hotel plate

Ambridge Hotel plate
circa 1905
Bob Mikush collection

This lovely Ambridge Hotel porcelain plate is 6 1/2 inches across. I wrote about the history of the Ambridge Hotel, built in 1905, on April 27, 2014.

Here's a closeup view of the plate's center:

According to the information of the back of the plate, it was made in Germany for the Ambridge News Co. 

I have very little information about the Ambridge News Co., including how long the company was in business. While I've found ads mentioning the Ambridge News Co. in issues of the Pittsburgh Press from 1905, 1906, and 1911, and another in a 1938 Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, no address or other information was provided.

However, the company was the publisher of many early Ambridge postcards. One bit of information about the business comes from the temperance march postcard in my blog post about the 400 block of Merchant St. It was published by the "Ambridge News Co., Horlick Bros.," which leads me to think the Ambridge News Co. was connected to prominent Ambridge newsdealer Steve Horlick.

Because the plate was made for the Ambridge News Co., and not the Ambridge Hotel, I believe it was made as a souvenir and not for the hotel's use. That belief is supported by other information on the plate's back: "Wheelock" was a major U. S. importer of souvenir china from the late 1890s until WWI.

Mark on back of Ambridge Hotel plate

Monday, July 30, 2018

Ambridge memorabilia: Ambridge Savings and Loan Association passbook

Ambridge Savings and Loan Assoc. passbook
savings account of Eddie Dzubak, Sr. and Marie Dzubak
courtesy of Lesabeth Trzcianka and Eddie Dzubak, Jr.

Once upon a time, customers of banks and similar businesses kept track of their deposits, interest earnings, and withdrawals with a passbook like the one above. This Ambridge Savings and Loan passbook belonged to the late Eddie Dzubak Sr. and his wife, Marie Dzubak, also deceased.

Ambridge Savings and Loan: the answer to that frequently asked question: What was between Davidson's and Economy Bank?

Ambridge Savings & Loan
506 Merchant St.
Beaver County Times
March 4, 1970

The former Ambridge Savings & Loan building is now the location of WesBanco Bank.